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Protect Yourself from Catalytic Converter Theft

Hi, it's Mark from Top Local, we're here with Bernie Pawlik, Pawlik Automotive in Vancouver. Vancouver's best auto service experience. 21 time winners of Best Auto Repair in Vancouver as voted by their customers. How are you doing this morning, Bernie? 

Bernie: Doing very well. 

Mark: So a bit of a controversial subject these days. Very frustrating for a lot of folks. How do we protect ourselves from catalytic converter theft? What's going on? 

Bernie: There's a lot in the news about catalytic converter theft these days, it seems to be on the rise. And it's been going on for a long, long time. And catalytic converters have always had some value as scrap metal. They're filled with precious metals. And so it's a good way for a thief to make a quick buck by removing a catalytic converter from a car. But the price fluctuates. And a catalytic converter generally have three precious metals, platinum, palladium, and rhodium. Rhodium is extremely valuable at the present time. So catalytic converters are worth a lot more money these days. 

Mark: So are there specific vehicles targeted? 

Bernie: There are. So the vehicles are targeted based on one, on ease of removal. And second, on the value of the catalytic converter. And Toyota Prius's, a lot in the news about Prius's. There's a lot of areas, not around Vancouver that I've heard, but certainly in California, Oregon, a lot in England where people have, this is what I hear in the news, and it's probably a lot of other places, but Prius's seem to be targeted very highly. 

Mark: And why? 

Bernie: The catalytic converter in a Toyota Prius, it’s valuable because it has a lot of precious metals in it. To achieve the low emissions that Toyota sets out to achieve, they pack the converter with a lot of precious metals. The more precious metal that you put in the converter, the better it actually works. You can buy a, you know, in the past you can go to an auto parts store and buy an  aftermarket replacement catalytic converter. I mean they used to have converter there. They still do, you know, it's $100 to buy a converter. Whereas the dealers, you know, a converter may be $1,200. Just giving, you know, round examples. And the Toyota Prius ones are substantially more money than that because of the precious metals. But the cheap hundred dollar converters, they barely have any precious metals in them. They didn't have to just have enough that you'll get you through an emission test. And fail within a year again. So they're not very good. Factory converters, they all have, you know, very high precious metal loading, but Prius's are exceptionally high. 

Mark: So catalytic converter, basically it's taking the pollutants, certain pollutants and those precious metals are actually bonding those pollutants and keeping them inside of the catalytic converter rather than shoving them out this tailpipe. Is that kind of a rough approximation was happening? 

Bernie: Actually, no, it doesn't work that way. And I'll be honest, I'm not, I can't tell you exactly, but what happens is as the exhaust flows past the hydrocarbon NOx and carbon monoxide, or actually converted to CO2 and water, and  that's basically how it works. As these gases pass the metals and the heat, there has to be heat and the reaction, it creates a chemical conversion. So that's basically what happens. So you know, as much as we hate CO2, coming out to the air, catalytic converter actually puts more CO2 out because it's actually taking those harmful pollutants, hydrocarbons, NOx, and carbon monoxide, and converting to the carbon dioxide and water. So, I mean, the water's good, but the CO2 is certainly is not, but you know, higher CO2, it's better combustion. But that's basically how it does it. So, catalytic converters they don't really wear out. I mean, they're supposedly last a lifetime of the vehicle, but they do fail eventually. And usually it's due to the, I mean, sometimes they can get overheated and damaged, but a lot of times the catalyst material just gets coated over by crap, you know, in the exhaust. And eventually it just isn't as efficient. But generally, even an old catalytic converter still has all that precious metal generally stays intact.

Mark: So isn't it difficult to get a catalytic converter out of a car? 

Bernie: Well it is, usually but there are some vehicles that are easier than others. Trucks, for instance, they sit higher, so someone can crawl underneath. Thieves cut these things out. It's easier nowadays because there's so many portable power tools, good battery powered tools. So with the reciprocating saw, you can just get underneath there with a metal blade in a matter of a minute or two, cut the catalytic converter out. So trucks are a good target because they sit high. Prius's of course, don't sit high, but they're highly valuable. So thieves that, there's a video you can watch on YouTube, couple of crafty guys in England pull up beside a Prius. They jack the vehicle up. One guy crawls underneath, I think it's like 90 seconds or something. They pop the vehicle down. They're gone with the catalytic converter probably, you know, make them three to 400 bucks in scrap metal, and that's a pretty good, a pretty good haul. I'm not giving anyone any ideas, you know, it's a pretty, you've got a couple of those a day. You could make a pretty good living till you get caught. 

Mark: Hopefully sooner than later. So how can I prevent my catalytic converter from being stolen? 

Bernie: Well, there's a few items, a few methods. I mean, first of all, if you have a locked, you know, a garage that you can park your car in, preferably in a private residence, that's probably the safest place. But I mean, second would be, you know, if you live in an apartment complex or something, that has shared parking, you know, an underground parking lot would be a good spot. However, people can get in. They do break into those kinds of places. So, you know, it's not a hundred percent safe, but it's better than the alternative.

You know, one, one thing to avoid is dark streets where there's no traffic at night. You know, I, my shop’s in an industrial area and down the road from me, I've had actually a couple of neighbours who've had a catalytic converter stolen off their vehicles because it gets dark down here. There's really no traffic, and it's a perfect place for a thief to do something. So if you're on a busy, busier road was more traffic, that's a good preventative. The other thing of course, is you can make things and there's a protective shields available. 

I'll just share a photo here or two. 

We had a customer come in awhile ago with an old, it was an older Toyota pickup truck, four wheel drive pickup truck had a bit of a lift on it, so this would be an a really easy vehicle to take a catalytic converter out of, but this person had a, I don't know, when had a customized catalytic converter, protective shield put into it. The red arrows kind of point to the shield, which is, I shouldn't say shield. I mean it's all a steel bars, but with a reciprocating saw, even if you did actually manage to reach it and cut the pipe, you'd never be able to sneak it out past this area. So really well thought out item. 

Now, here’s another view of it from the front. Again, with the protective pieces in the way. The one thing about this, it's of course it's a bit of a pain is if you ever have to do any repairs and remove this, you're going to have to cut this piece off and cut it apart to get it out, but it's not something in the course of normal automotive repair that you need to remove this, but there are times when you would, so that would cost you some extra money. But I mean, really a pretty cool creative solution. If you don't want to go this kind of route of customization, there are items available. If you look online there and we'll put some links, for a couple of products. We've never used them, so we can't personally endorse them, but some interesting ideas.

There's a company that makes shields, specifically for Toyota Prius's. I think they're stainless steel and they bolt in underneath the vehicle, which is good. I mean, it's not like a thief couldn't remove them, but any deterrent helps. If you have two Prius's one with the shield one without it, they're going to go with the one without it.

So that's one item. There are some wire cables that, basically clamp up to your exhaust pipe. These are like steel, hardened steel wires. Again, it makes it very difficult for a thief to cut the converter. Again, thieves want to do stuff fast. They want to do it quick, and if they can't do that, then they're going to move on to the next thing.

There's also one that's even more interesting. It's some steel cables attached to the exhaust pipe, they run down the length of the exhaust pipe from the front over the catalytic converter and it comes with an alarm. And you have a fob, you can set it. It's actually not very expensive, surprisingly, but there there's a fob and it has, I think 110 or 120 decibel siren that sounds and is supposed to set up underneath, and of course, blow the thief's ears out while we're in the middle of cutting the converter and scare them away. But it also has some, you know, if they happen to break the siren off or whatever they do, they, it has some protective wires again.

Steel wires that just slow the process down. So that's another one I thought was kind of an interesting idea. Although having the idea of having another fob to, you know, to arm your vehicle for a catalytic converter theft seem a little, it seems a little extreme to me. Like it seems like a lot of work, but I guess if you live in an area where that happens, it might be an option. So those are a few items. As I mentioned, we'll put some notes in in the end. 

Mark: So this is an item that you've had to replace far too many times already. 

Bernie: Yeah. We've done quite a few. It really varies what the price of precious metals. Sometimes when the price goes down, you know, then the level of theft goes down. But you know they talk about you know, it's often talking about the ethics of scrap dealers. I mean, you got a couple of guys walking in, Hey, I got this catalytic converter. I mean, why are they not calling the police or checking credentials? They're supposed to do that kind of thing. For some reason they don't, or people get away with it somehow. We've sold lots of catalytic converters to scrap metal dealers over the years because we don't do that many anymore. But, you know, and when we used to have Air Care, like emission testing in Vancouver, you know, catalytic converter replacement was a pretty common thing we do. You know, we do it occasionally. So we'd have scrap metal dealers coming by buying converters, and some of them, you know, go for a fair chunk of money, but not what they're going for today. Some of them are really high valued. 

Mark: So there you go. If you need to protect yourself, the guys to call in Vancouver, Pawlik Automotive, you can reach them at (604) 327-7112 to book your appointment. They can only help you in Vancouver. If you're somewhere else, cause we know this, a popular subject worldwide, you can check out the links that we have below in the show notes or on the blog post on the website. Of course, if you're looking for more information on repairing your make or model of car, or for a specific kind of issue that you're having, you can check out the blog posts over 640 on the website. Or on our YouTube channel Pawlik Auto Repair. Thank you so much for listening to the podcast. We really appreciate it. Give us a review on Apple iTunes or Spotify and thanks Bernie. 

Bernie: Thank you Mark. And just one other thing I want to add in the end. Your car insurance may pay for that, if your converter’s stolen. So just something else to look at. This is know little bonus tip for listening to all our credits at the end of the podcast.

Prevent Catalytic Converter Theft - check out these links for more ideas!
https://www.catstrap.net/
http://www.catclamp.com/
https://capcitymuffler.com/what-is-cat-security%E2%84%A2

Winter Tire Options

Mark: Hi, it's Mark from Top Local. We're here with Bernie Pawlik, Pawlik Automotive Vancouver and we're talking cars. How're you doing this morning Bernie?

Bernie: Doing very well.

Mark: So winter is coming in Vancouver. Believe it or not, it's getting cold. We know the snow will come. What kind of tire options should I be looking at for my vehicle?

Bernie: Well, there's a few ways you can go. I mean, Vancouver, if you're not familiar with our climate, it's pretty temperate. I mean it does go below freezing sometimes. A few years ago we had snow on the ground for about a month which is highly unusual. Often we won't have any snow or there'll be one snow fall and usually when that one snow falls happens and it happens before the new year, everyone's lined up in front of the tire shops. It's front page news and it's exciting because everyone waited to the last minute because they didn't think it was going to snow. So Vancouver's funny that way. You go to any other places in Canada, people have already had their snow tires on far a long time and they're prepared for winter because they know what going to happen. So Vancouver, there's a few different snow tire options. I mean, you can not put snow tires on and that might restrict when you drive your car or you can go with a couple of different options. There are all weather tires and there are full winter tires. The full snow tires, I like to call them, it has the snowflake or the M+ S emblems on the side of the tire.

Mark: So what's the difference between an all season tire and an actual winter tire or snow tire?

Bernie: Well all season tires are meant, they call them all season so, you think well great, they're good for snow and they're good for everything but I think they used to be sold like that but as time has gone by, you know, we've realized that they're really not that good in the snow. They're good for rain. They're good for, they're basically three season tires. But once snow hits, they're not that good. The rubber compounds are harder and firmer. Softer rubber is better in snow and icy conditions and that's what snow tires have. Also, all weather tires, they have a combination between a soft rubber and a durable rubber. So you have the best of both worlds. So those are really a four season type of tire.

And I was going to talk a little bit of history on snow tires because you know, for people like us who have a fair bit of grey on our heads and you know beyond 50 years old, we kind of remember the days when cars, a lot of cars, were rear wheel drive or front wheel drive only. Now there's a lot of all wheel drive but in the traditional days of rear wheel drive, you know, people who did put snow tires on would just put them on the rear driving wheels and they'd leave their regular tires on the front. That was kind of the traditional thing to do or maybe put some chains on the back and it was all about getting traction so we could move forward in the snow. And not a lot of consideration was given to how does the car actually handle.

But nowadays, of course, we always use four tires on the vehicle because tire technology is really improved to the point where you can actually get much better handling and much safer handling with having four tires. Also with ABS brakes now which every car has, you get better stopping ability because you have evenness. So the key is to having same rubber compounds all the way around, the car will stop better as well.

Mark: So just to make the point again. You don't just put snow tires on the driving wheels.

Bernie: No. I mean there might be places. If you're somewhere in the deep north where there's you know, a crazy amount of snow and there's to a lot of people on the road, maybe you'd do that. But I think that really, I can't imagine anyone doing that. At least where we are it's always all four wheels. So yeah, that's an ancient practise.

Mark: So with that point clarified, what kind of options do I have as far as snow tires or all seasons?

Bernie: Yeah, so I mentioned the idea of you could just leave you all season tires on. If you're only driving, let's say for Vancouver, you're only driving around the city you know, you could just leave your all season tires on. You might find though, that when it snows out, depending on on the kind of car you have, you may not be going anywhere in a hurry. So that's something. If you're willing to just say, "Hey you know what, if it snows I'm going to park my car". Fine. But if you're going to do any driving that you know you're going to be driving if it snows and it very likely will. Or you're going to be going over any roads that require snow tires and there's a lot of them around this area. You know, highways leading out of town or if you live anywhere outside of Vancouver which a lot of people do and you're in a mountainous area with snow. Well you're going to need to, you should have some winter or snow tires on the car. A, you may get fined and B, you simply may not go anywhere. So that leaves you two options. All weather tires which I'd mentioned a little earlier which are like a four season type of tire. You don't have to take them off the car. You can leave them on year round. Or pure snow tires which you would change seasonally. You put the snow tires on obviously in the winter. Take them off and use your all season or summer type tires in the summer.

Mark: Ok, so if I go with a winter tire option, I need to switch them over every winter season and back in the spring. Is it better to get dedicated rims for those tires or is switching them back and forth ok?

Bernie: Well you can switch them back and forth certainly, but I think dedicated rims are really a great way to go. The initial investment of course, is heftier. You have to buy a set of rims and a lot of people opt for the sort of steel wheels which look kind of, in my opinion, a little ugly, so if you're willing your car to look ugly for a few months. You can always buy a fancier wheel too if you want, but I mean, it's a lot better, the initial investment is more money but down the road it's cheaper because you pay much less money for mounting and balancing your tires. Plus it's not so hard on your rims. I mean every time you take a tire on and off a rim, you're rebalancing it. You're causing wear to the tires and to the rim. So over time, it really does pay off. As I say, it's an investment but it's the better way to go.

Mark: So is there any reason why you would just go with winter tires and just keep them on instead of switching between the seasons?

Bernie: Well no, you would never do that. If you leave your winter tires on during the summer, the rubber compounds are very soft and they can start wearing really funny. Now I've seen the odd person do it and sometimes they get away with it and I've had some other people with cars where you know, by the time July hits, the tire treads are worn in the wonkiest patterns because you know, the heat off the road just basically destroys the tire. So if you have winter tires, you need to change them but this is where all weather tires come in. So the all weather tires are basically, as I was saying earlier, that it's a combination tire that has good handling in the snow. They're actually rated as a snow tire. They have the mountain and the snowflake emblem on them. So they're a legal snow tire and they handle well in the snow but they also have, the rubber compound is such that it can handle the heat as well. So it's a really awesome compromise and the thing about that that's great is you don't have to mount and dismount them. You buy them one time. You don't worry about storing your tires anywhere. So that's a really good option to consider as well.

Mark: Any disadvantages to those kinds of tires?

Bernie: Well they're not as good in the snow and they're not as good for durability. So that's the disadvantage. And so they're going to wear out faster than a traditional all season titre but you know, so you're paying a little bit more money but you're also saving a lot in the interim. So it really depends on what you want to get out of your car but I think all weather is a really good option. I've used them on cars I've owned myself. I think it's a really good way to go.

Mark: So how do I know when my snow tires are worn out?

Bernie: Well I mean, typically tires there are wear bars on tires and once the tread is worn down to that wear bar, the tire is legally worn out. You don't want to go that far because typically tires will, they start toy lose their handling ability way before you get down to that point. I mean, usually the tire tread, say is like at the 30-40% range you'll notice the deterioration in handling. The car will slip and slide a lot easier and with a snow tire that's even more pronounced. So good tread depth is key for snow tires. So you do want to have them at at least 40% I would say for optimum snow handling. You can have the tires measured as you go by but I'd say like you know, when the treads are down like 4 or 5 millimetres you're pretty much, and they start at like 10 or even a little thicker. When they get down to around that, you probably want to think about chaining them. You might get a little more out of them but that's kind of, again I'm talking about for optimum handling.

Mark: What about studded tires? Is that still a thing?

Bernie: Yeah studs are still available. Certainly somewhere like Vancouver, I think studded tires would be a horrible thing to have because 99% of the winter is on a dry paved road. So you have to listen to that clacking sound of studded tires and it's actually hard on the roads.There are legal requirements here and in most jurisdictions that studded tires have to be removed by a certain date. But if you live somewhere where there's continuous snow and ice on the road, studded tires are not a bad option, because you won't really notice the stud. Certainly if there's ice those certainly provide the ultimate grip.

Mark: Any final thoughts?

Bernie: You know, it's just about assessing the driving conditions, where you're going to be driving, what you're going to be doing with your car, can you afford to leave it. If you want the ultimate, of course in handling and flexibility, put the snow tires on. I mean, you can always count on getting wherever you go. It's a bit of an investment as I said with rims, but that's really the best way to go.

Mark: And always remember that getting going is the easy part in snow, stoping is the bit more sporty.

Bernie: Yeah exactly and one thing we actually hadn't, you know we just said final thoughts, but actually a couple of things just to get back into the conversation again.Handling with snow tires is much better, like with four snow tires. It also helps you go around corners and braking, but of course, you need to be cautious when you drive in snow. If I can just say a final thought, drive with caution. Especially, going up hill is one thing, and accelerating is one thing, but when it comes to stopping I mean that's when you can really lose it. So be very cautions when you drive, going around corners. You never know when sometimes the road can be, have really good traction and all of a sudden, it just turns into a slushy ice pit and you can really lose it really fast. So it's just really really good to be cautious driving in the snow. It's happened to me before. It's scary.

Mark: When your car turns into a bob sleigh, it tends to tighten a few things on your body.

Bernie: Yes it does that for sure.

Mark: So there you go. If you need some information on your tires, you want to check out your options. You need replacements or change overs for tires, you want to get an inspections on your car, the guys to call are Pawlik Automotive. You can reach them at 604-327-7112 to book your appointment. Check out the website, pawlikautomotive.com. Hundreds of articles on there. YouTube channel Pawlik Auto Repair. Hundreds of videos on there. And thanks so much for watching and listening to the podcast. We really appreciate it. Thanks Bernie

Bernie: Thanks Mark. Thanks for watching and listening. Happy and safe winter driving to you.

New, Expensive Trends in Automotive Lighting

Change is a constant and on vehicles there are always new advances. One rapidly advancing area is in automotive lighting with the biggest change being a move away from filament bulbs. This technology has illuminated every corner and interior of cars since cars were invented (with the brief use of gas lamps in the very early years).

The latest technology is xenon headlamps and LED lamps. Many new vehicles, especially in the high-end market sport much of this technology.

The difference of 50 years: the VW has tiny taillamps typical of the early 60’s while the 2012 Audi’s are large and typical on modern taillamps.

Have You Noticed How Well Lit New Cars Are?

Compare this to a 50-year-old VW Beatle with 6 Volt electrical system. You could barely see the VW’s taillights and the road illumination by the headlamps was one 10th of what xenon and LEDs provide. There are many benefits to these new lighting technologies: they are much brighter, use far less electricity, and in the case of LED lights switch on instantly which, when being used in brake lights, provide a significant safety advantage.

LED and xenon lamps are much more durable than their filament predecessors however they cost substantially more to replace. Xenon bulbs can cost over $200 while many traditional headlamp bulbs cost in the $10 to $20 range. LED light assemblies will rarely need replacement because they have so many individual LEDs however they will be very expensive.

Perhaps as they become more common, less expensive options like re-manufactured units or repairs may become available. In spite of these extra costs overall the advantages of better illumination, lower power consumption and increased longevity are very worthwhile.

Xenon and park light bulbs for BMW X5, both provide intense illumination but are very costly compared to old school bulbs.

8 Tips For Getting Your Car Safely Through This Winter.

Winter has arrived: are you prepared for what’s ahead? Do you know what needs to be done to make sure that you and your vehicle make it through to spring?

Here’s a helpful list:

1st Be sure that maintenance services are up to date (oil changes, inspections and previously recommended services that are due)

2nd Be sure that your wiper blades are in great condition.

3rd Be sure that your engine’s antifreeze protection is good for colder temperatures than you will be driving in.

4th Be sure that your washer fluid has antifreeze protection

5th If you use snow tires have them installed in November (or sooner if you live in early snowfall country). If you don’t use snow tires this is a good time of year to replace marginal all season tires.

6th Be sure that your battery is in good condition.

7th Be sure that your air conditioning is functioning well (it helps to very quickly defog your windshield and increases your visibility)

8th Be certain to have an emergency kit if you are planning a trip. This kit includes warm blankets and/or sleeping bag; a candle and matches; water and couple days worth of snacks.

Following these suggestions will help you and your car survive whatever type of winter that might be thrown at us.

Winter driving at its finest. Are you prepared?

Why Brake Fluid Leaks Are Dangerous

Your car’s brakes rely on brake fluid to transmit the force that your foot applies to the brake pedal to each wheel’s brake. Occasionally a brake system will develop a leak and if left unchecked for long enough this can cause some serious safety concerns. Fortunately modern cars have a warning light which illuminates on your dash when the fluid level drops too low.

Recently we serviced a vehicle with the dash warning lamp on. We inspected the fluid and found the level very low. Upon performing a brake inspection we found the left brake caliper leaking, and further inspection revealed something more interesting and potentially very dangerous: the inner brake pad soaked in fluid was disintegrating. This could have crumbled apart upon hard braking and caused a serious inability to stop. Fortunately we caught this in time, repaired it and made the car safe. While it is normal for your brake fluid level to drop over a long period of time you should have your brakes inspected at least yearly to be sure that the system is safe.

Brake pad damaged by excessive brake fluid soaking: arrows point to the disintegrating pad material

Why You Need Good Shocks and Struts

Shocks and struts are a major component of your vehicle’s suspension system and work hard to keep your vehicle firmly gripped to the road.  Though they generally last a long time they are a commonly wearing component on every vehicle. Unfortunately as a car ages and repair costs escalate shock and strut replacement often gets put on the back burner compromising the safety of the vehicle and wearing out other components. Lets look at what shocks and struts do, what goes wrong with them and what the consequences of not replacing worn ones are.

First off shocks and struts are both similar and different. They are similar in that the strut contains a shock absorber inside, the difference is that the strut forms the upper portion of the suspension geometry and incorporates a coil spring. As you might guess by this description struts are more expensive to replace. The part costs more along with extra labour. Shocks and struts can be found on the front or rear suspension of a vehicle.

Shock absorber on left, Strut on right. Note the added complexity of the strut

The purpose of the shock absorber is to stop the oscillation of the vehicle springs. Without them your car would continuously bounce on bumps and your ride would be extremely uncomfortable. Handling and braking would be severely compromised.

When shocks and struts wear you will experience a bouncy ride and along with this comes reduced stopping distance. This is perhaps the most important reason to replace worn out shocks and struts. Studies have found that worn shocks reduce stopping distance by 12 feet from a 100km/hr panic stop. That could make the difference between hitting the car in front of you or not. Cupped tire tread wear is another result of worn out shocks and struts and often this wear occurs when you cannot feel the usual bouncy ride associated with bad shocks. Many a set of good tires has been ruined adding expense to one’s auto service budget. Another casualty of worn shocks and struts are prematurely wearing front brakes. This occurs from too much vehicle weight transfer to the front wheels when braking.

Leaking shock absorber on 06 Honda Civic

 

Severely cupped tire tread. The yellow arrow points to high tread and the red arrow points to low tread. This causes loud road noise.

Many shock manufacturers recommend replacement at 80,000 kilometers. In my opinion this is excessive as they often last substantially longer on many vehicles. The best way to determine shock and strut condition is to assess vehicle ride on a regular basis along with a visual inspection of the suspension and tires.

While replacing shocks and struts can be an expensive service, the excellent ride, enhanced vehicle control and improved stopping distance make it more than great value for your money.

What Makes a Quality Brake Job

Brake repairs are one of the most common vehicle services. With so many shops doing them and such a variety of advertised ‘brake specials’ and prices how do you know if your brakes are being done properly and you are receiving good value for your money? Remember, cheap pricing usually comes with compromises in quality of parts and workmanship. Here’s what makes a good brake job.

It starts with a thorough inspection and that begins with a road test. The technician looks for brake pulls and vibrations when the brakes are applied and listens for noises. In the shop comes is a visual inspection of the brake fluid, looking for fluid level and quality of the fluid. The master cylinder and brake booster are visually inspected as are all brake lines and hoses. Wheels are then removed and brake pads and shoes are measured for thickness and evenness of wear. Brake rotors and drums are also measured for thickness and inspected for damage. Calipers and wheel cylinders are inspected for leakage and freedom of movement. Also visually inspected are ABS wires and proportioning valves and let’s not forget the operation of the parking brake. Other incidental but critical items safe braking are inspected such as wheel bearing play, shocks and struts and obviously loose steering and suspension components.

From the inspection an assessment of the brakes is made: which parts are in good condition and functioning well, and which items need repair now. A good shop will consult with you about how much you drive and where. This helps determine the urgency of repairs.

Let’s now look at repairs. A quality brake job involves not only replacement of parts but also thorough cleaning: caliper and pad sliders frequently get corroded and using a wire wheel or sandblaster to remove rust is essential. Hardware and self-adjusters for drum brakes requires disassembly and cleaning. After cleaning, components require lubrication with quality high temperature brake lubricants.

Quality of parts is very important to a successful trouble free repair: there are many grades of brake parts and using the best quality makes sense for longevity and the best stopping power. Cheap parts usually wear out faster; will cause squeals and other unwanted concerns.

Flushing brake fluid is a service often required with a brake job. Brake fluid absorbs water right out of the air and becomes contaminated. Many manufacturers recommend replacing the fluid every 2 years. When due, this becomes part of a quality brake repair.

After repairs, a thorough road test is done to be sure that your brakes are stopping your car as they should. Be aware that after many brake repairs you may find that your brakes make different sounds, the pedal feels different and there may also be odd smells and even smoke coming from replaced parts. All of these concerns should disappear within a day’s driving.

 

How A Prepurchase Inspection Saves You Thousands

“Trust me: it’s a good car.”
“You don’t need a prepurchase inspection, we can offer you a powertrain warranty.”
“We’ve done an inspection on this vehicle and it all checks out.”

Those were comments made by the salesman to a recent client who brought in a 1997 Nissan Quest for a prepurchase inspection. Fortunately our client was smart and insisted on an inspection, and it is something that should be done every time you purchase a vehicle.

You really don’t know by just driving it what potentially expensive repairs may be required.

This vehicle was only priced at $2900 and was 15 years old so I wasn’t expecting perfection. On the plus side there were only 124,000 kilometers on the clock and the body and interior were in good condition.

Phase One of Our Prepurchase Inspection

We walk around the vehicle, inspect the interior controls and then go for an extended road test. The vehicle felt fine with the exception of a slight wobble in the steering wheel probably caused by a bad tire. There was also a noticeable humming noise present when the engine was running. Overall the vehicle felt good.

Phase Two of the Pre-purchase Inspection

This involves an under hood and then an under vehicle inspection.

Under the hood, most everything looked very good except that the battery was in very poor condition (in spite of being only a year old).

Under the vehicle, on the hoist things looked good for the steering and suspension systems… except for a slight rack and pinion leak which in time will turn a into costly repair. The tires, as we suspected from the road test had problems: the rears were almost legally worn out and the fronts had several sidewall indentations.

Phase Three of the Inspection

This involves removing the wheels and inspecting the brakes, and here we found some concerns: front brake pads had 3 millimeters remaining which is close to worn out. Worse still, both rear wheel cylinders were leaking and on the right side badly enough to have soaked the brake shoes. Clearly these rear brakes would not pass a government safety inspection.

As a result of the inspection our client now knows fully what he is getting for his $2900:

A 15 year old van with low mileage and in pretty good condition overall but requiring some immediate repairs to brakes, tires and battery. Some time down the road repairs to the steering rack and the fuel pump (that was the humming noise that we mentioned earlier) will be needed. He can use this inspection to either negotiate a better price for the vehicle or simply move onto something else.

The prepurchase inspection gave him the truth in order to make an informed decision!

prepurchase inspection

Right rear brake showing leaking wheel cylinder and brake shoes soaked with brake fluid: a definate safety concern

Tire Pressure Monitoring System – TPMS

Tire Pressure Monitoring System | Pawlik Automotive, Vancouver BC

A tire pressure monitoring system offers convenience, are a smart safety addition and they are proven to increase the life of your tires!

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Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems TPMS

TPMS show inflation pressure which governs the performance of a pneumatic tire. Safety performance like braking distance and lateral stability require the inflation pressures to be maintained as specified by the vehicle manufacturer.

Extreme under-inflation can lead to thermal and mechanical overload caused by overheating and subsequent, sudden destruction of the tire. Plus, under-inflation adversely affects fuel efficiency and tire wear. Tires leak air naturally and over a year, even a typical new, properly mounted tire can lose from 20 to 60 kPa (3 to 9 psi), roughly 10% or even more of its serviced proper pressure.
tire pressure monitoring system tpms
The significant advantages of TPMS are illustrated by the costs of tire under inflation:

• Consequences of low tire pressure: Punctures (approx. 80% of punctures are caused by inadequate tire pressure), Increased tire wear due to added flexing work, Increased fuel consumption due to higher rolling resistance

• Fuel usage: for every 10% of under-inflation on each tire on a vehicle, a 1% reduction in fuel economy will occur (According to the GITI). In just the US, the DOT estimates that under inflated tires waste 2 billion US gal. (7,600,000,000 litres) of fuel each year.

• Poor tire life: Tire disintegration, heat buildup, separation and sidewall/casing breakdowns are mostly caused by under inflated tires. Running a tire even briefly with low pressure breaks down the casing and stops the option to retread the tire.

• Increased downtime, higher maintenance and repair: Under-inflated tires cause expensive downtime, maintenance and premature tire replacement.

• Poor safety: Under-inflated tires lead to tread separation and tire failure, resulting in 40,000 accidents, 33,000 injuries and over 650 deaths per year. On the other hand, tires properly inflated provide greater stability, handling and braking efficiencies and more safety for the driver, the vehicle, the loads and others on the road.

• Environmentally Bad: Under-inflated tires, as estimated by the Department of Transportation, release over 57.5 billion pounds of unnecessary carbon-monoxide pollutants into the atmosphere each year in the United States alone.

Tire pressure monitoring systems are mandated in many countries now and offer real advantages; call us to find out about equipping your vehicle.

We Don't Use Fearmongering!

Fearmongering is a sales technique used by some shops, and sadly, as it is so often associated with dishonest recommendations gives the auto service industry a bad reputation.

We recently had a client who brought her vehicle to us for a second opinion about some brake work that she was told was absolutely, immediately required and “must be done today or her car would be dangerous to drive”. We inspected her brakes (several days later) and found that the rear brake pads still had 4 millimeters remaining which is a far cry from needing immediate replacement. Yes they were nearly worn out but not dangerous. Through using this technique this shop not only destroyed their credibility but tarnished the reputation of the auto service industry.

We advised our client that based on her driving habits her brakes would be perfectly safe for at least 3 to 6 more months. Four months had passed and we replaced her rear pads and rotors. She had driven 11,000 kilometers and those brake pads that were supposedly unsafe still had 3 millimeters remaining. Three millimeters is worn out but still not unsafe.

There are times when we find something on a car that is unsafe and requires immediate repairs but this is rare. In this sort of case we can show you the concern while the car is on the hoist or if this is not possible send a video or photo via e-mail. We always educate our clients on what is good and what is worn or requiring servicing on their vehicle and let them choose when to repair it.

Getting back to the fearmongering shop, a better, and more honest approach would be to advise the client that their brakes are almost worn out and instead of falsely creating fear and attempting to sell work this shop could have built trust through honesty and waited for a few months to do the service.

Close-up of worn out rear brake pad, note the yellow arrows which show the remaining pad material which is 3 mm thick (new pads are 8 mm)

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Let's Discuss Your Vehicle...

In order to provide an estimate, a diagnosis is the next step!